Format: Paperback

How do learners learn to speak a foreign language? What different approaches have been developed to teach this important skill? Speaking deals with both these questions, providing clear explanations of recent research and developments in methodology. In the final section the author suggests practical ways in which teachers can gain a better understanding of the role of oral classroom activities.

  • ISBN: 978-0-19-437134-6


The author and series editors

Section One: Understanding speaking

1 Speaking as a skill

1.1 Knowledge and skill

1.2 Oral skills and interaction

2 Differences between speech and writing

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Processing conditions of speech and writing

2.3 Reciprocity conditions of speech and writing

3 Production skills

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Facilitation

3.3 Compensation

3.4 Conclusion

4 Interaction skills

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Routines

4.3 Negotiation skills

4.4 Negotiation of meaning

4.5 Management of interaction

4.6 Conclusion

5 Learner strategies of communication

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Achievement strategies

5.3 Reduction strategies

6 A checklist of skills

Section Two: The methodology of oral interaction

7 Introduction

8 Oral skills: methodological objectives

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Rivers and Temperley's view

8.3 Littlewood's view

8.4 Interaction criteria

8.5 Conclusion

9 Interaction activities

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Interaction activities: Littlewood

9.3 Interaction activities: Harmer

9.4 Interaction activities: Rivers and Temperley

9.5 Interaction activities: Ur

10 Activities for oral practice

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Information-gap activities

10.3 Communication games

10.4 Simulations

10.5 Project-based interaction activities

11 Students' production in interaction activities

12 Interaction skills in oral language methodology

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Accuracy and interaction in the curriculum

12.3 Integrating accuracy and interaction skills

12.4 Classroom organization and oral skills

Section Three: Exploring oral interaction in the classroom

13 Planning a project

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Collecting data

14 Exploring aspects of oral methodology

14.1 Exploring oral language

14.2 Exploring oral interaction activities

14.3 Exploring oral interaction and learners' level

14.4 Exploring learners' perceptions of activities

14.5 Exploring learners' oral language needs

Further reading