Welcome to the How Languages are Learned online resources which you can download and use in self-study or teacher-training groups. Here you can find:

  • • Sample material from the fourth edition, including new ‘Questions for Reflection’
  • • Discussion Questions
  • • Supplementary Activities for teachers
  • • Chapter summaries
  • • Weblinks to related content on other websites

We update this page regularly with new content so please visit again soon.


Contents PDF (96 KB)

The contents page of the fourth edition of How Languages are Learned

Glossary PDF (204 KB)

The glossary of terms used in the book

Chapter Summaries

Use these editable PowerPoint presentations to review key points for each chapter


Links to real-life resources related to the research discussed in How Languages are Learned.

Chapter 1 Extract PDF (145 KB)

The first six pages from Chapter 1

Questions for Reflection PDF (53 KB)

Questions from the end of each chapter to personalise learning

Discussion Questions

Use in groupwork to help stimulate critical thinking on the key points of each chapter

Supplementary Activities

New for the fourth edition. Extra activities, not included in the book.

Patsy Lightbown and Nina Spada on How Languages are Learned, fourth edition.

Patsy Lightbown and Nina Spada, authors of How Languages are Learned, talk about what inspired them to write their best-selling book and what they find most interesting about second language research.

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